Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. The word 'aviation' was coined by French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1873, from the verb 'avier' (synonymous flying), itself derived from the Latin word 'avis' ('bird') and the suffix '-ation'. There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight. The first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 when he reportedly made the first manned, powered, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance (50 m (160 ft)) but insignificant altitude from level ground in his bat-winged, fully self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole. Seven years later, on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry. The report on the trials was not publicized until 1910, as they had been a military secret. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an 'uninterupted flight' of around 300 metres (985 ft). Although widely believed at the time, these claims were later discredited. However, the most widely accepted date is December 17, 1903 by the Wright brothers. The Wright brothers were the first to fly in a powered and controlled aircraft. Previous flights were gliders (control but no power) or free flight (power but no control), but the Wright brothers combined both, setting the new standard in aviation records. Following this, the widespread adoption of ailerons rather than wing warping made aircraft much easier to control, and only a decade later, at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, and even attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew larger and more reliable. The Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances. ...